This cartographic database provides digitized land survey maps of China produced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. From the last decades of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) to the end of the Republican era (1912-1949), China’s central and provincial governments and the Land Survey Department of the Japanese Army conducted geographical surveys across China and produced maps that contain detailed information on topographical and administrative features. Over 4,000 of these land survey maps of China were compiled and published by the Japanese publisher Kagaku Shoin between 1986 and 1998. With the support of Kagaku Shoin, the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science (MPIWG) and the Department of History, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) have jointly curated, digitized, and georeferenced the published maps and have created a unique open-access cartographic database that allows users to seamlessly incorporate historical maps into any GIS mapping software. We have also included maps that have been digitized and georeferenced by Academia Sinica in Taiwan.
This database brings together all historical land survey maps of China that are currently accessible and allows users to cross-reference them on a single web-based user interface. Users can export map layers to desktop- or web-based GIS tools by using WMTS (Web Map Tile Service) URLs. For instructions on how to export map layers, please follow this link . Users are welcome to use the maps provided in this database for research purposes under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. Creative Commons License

Sources:

  1. Chūgoku tairiku gomanbun no ichi chizu shūsei 中国大陸五万分の一地図集成 (Collection of 1:50,000 maps of China). 8 vols. Tokyo: Kagaku Shoin, 1986-1998. (MPIWG Dataset: 1885-1945, 1:50,000) Between 1986 and 1998, Kagaku Shoin published 4,088 land survey maps of China held in archives in Japan and the United States. This collection contains maps of nineteen provinces: Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hainan, Hebei, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shanxi, Zhejiang, Anhui, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, and Sichuan.
  2. Center for GIS, Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica: Academia Sinica holds approximately 2,000 land survey maps of China produced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a portion of which has been digitized and made publicly available via WMTS. Maps of seven provinces (Anhui, Fujian, Hebei, Henan, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Zhejiang) are included in this database for reference purposes.
Citation:
Paper Citation in APA:
Lin, N. Y., Chen, S. P., Wang, S., & Yeh, C. (2020). Displaying spatial epistemologies on web GIS: using visual materials from the Chinese local gazetteers as an example. International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 14(1-2), 81-97.
Web Site Citation in APA:
The Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, The Department of History of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Land Survey Maps of China: A Cartographic Database (MPIWG Dataset: 1885-1945, 1:50,000), The General Administration of Land Surveys. https://chmap.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de. Published 2019.

Displaying spatial epistemologies in web GIS We take text and image materials from the Chinese local gazetteers as an example. You can use your CSV with image URLs and public WMTS layers.
Reference URL:https://www.euppublishing.com/doi/full/10.3366/ijhac.2020.0246
How to use the WMTS and XYZ Tiles service? Follow this Manual.
1. Your historical visual materials - normal or spatial images(CSV or IIIF)
In our case: Images and Text in Chinese Local Gazetteers(8th and the 19th centuries)
Reference URL:LoGaRT
2. Add reference layers (using WMTS Layers or IIIF maps) in GIS
In our case: Land Survey Maps of China (1903-1948)
3. Observe spatial patterns
Images at the same location on GIS Layer
Images in the same source on GIS Layer

Land Survey Maps of China and Chinese Local Gazetteers Coverage.

Images In Map - IIM You can send CSV to our service via API URL or Upload. The CSV's columns have to contain ImageURL, Name, Latitude, Longitude and Date.

Maps In Map - MIM You can send CSV to our service via API URL or Upload. The CSV's columns have to contain ImageURL, Name, Latitude, Longitude and Date.
Tags: Administrative map, City map, Building or building complex, Layout diagram, Astronomy star map
Exmaples:會稽縣志 (1661 ~ 1722) 28卷,紹興府志 (1735 ~ 1796) 80卷
City Maps

Buildings

IIIF In Map - I3FIM You can send CSV to our service via API URL or Upload. The CSV's columns have to contain ImageURL, Name, Latitude, Longitude and Date. This data source are manifest URLs:
https://www.loc.gov/item/74650033/manifest.json
https://chmap.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/lgtu/iiif/1ba0595c-023e-4494-970f-275e51888184.json
Qing Imperial Cartography
MPIWG Mirador
We can compare maps in GIS and images in IIIF resources together at the same time.

We can georeference the images of the IIIF resources.

Download the georeferenced image and GCP points files. You can georeference the images in QGIS for the advanced digitization and analysis.


Text In Map - TIM You can send CSV to our service via API URL or Upload. The CSV's columns have to contain Name, Latitude, Longitude and Date. The "長庚" keyword in Chinese local gazetteers.Reference URL:LoGaRT

Lite GeoIIIF Loader

Lite GeoIIIF Georeferencing Tool (Manual)
General Images

1.Assign images coordinates
Maps

1.Assign maps coordinates
2. Georeferencing maps


You can edit spatial description of IIIF here or using the hyperlink:
https://chmap.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/lgtu/index.html?apiURL=Your IIIF manifest URL
Send the Lite GeoIIIF to your organization's web services (Manual)

IIIF Manifest Links & Examples MPIWG Mirador Link:MPIWG Mirador
MPIWG CHMAP Link:MPIWG CHMAP
General Images:https://media.nga.gov/public/manifests/nga_highlights.json
Maps:https://www.loc.gov/item/74650033/manifest.json

IIIF Archives Institutes
IIIF community and Consortium
Harvard Digital Collections: Maps
National Gallery of Art: Maps
The Library of Congress: Maps
国立国会図書館デジタルコレクション
京都大学貴重地図
The David Rumsey Map Collection
Vatican Library
Europeana Pro: Maps

WMTS - XYZ Tiles Loader


When you loaded some layers, you can enable/disable the layer by the right layer control.
XYZ Tiles URL: https://logart.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/ts/t/terrain/{z}/{x}/{y}.png
WMTS: MPIWG WMTS, Histroical China WMTS , Histroical Taiwan WMTS .

GeoJSON Loader

If your GeoJSON properties contain imageURL, you can see the image markers on the map.

CSV Loader

The CSV file have to contain name, Latitude, Longitude and date. If your CSV colunums contain imageURL, you can see the image markers on the map.


You selected 0 layers (Tiles/IIIF) Click layer title to Priview

(1).Web site instructions:
As each layer covers a province, clicking on a province name would generate a public WMTS URL that enables data use.

You can use place name search to find your locations by using Chinese or Pingyin.

This scale control let you zoom in/out maps. The opacity slider let you set the opacity of the overlayer.

You can look for coordinates by draging the blue map marker.


(2).How to use our services in the third-party applications:

  1. How to use these layers in QGIS or ArcGIS by WMTS.
  2. How to use these layers in Palladio
  3. Watch a demo video on Youtube